AdvancedSearch
Articles in press have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Display Method:
Determination of 9 Strobilurin Fungicides in Vegetables by QuECHERS-Ultra-High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
Peng XU, Jianzhen ZHAO, Weiwei YAN, Jiachen CHEN, Huiyu LUO, Hui LIU
 doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020060021
Abstract(12) HTML](3) PDF(0)
Abstract:
A method was established for the nine strobilurin fungicides in vegetables by using QuEChERS method. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and purified with n-propyl-ethylenediamine (PSA), C18 and graphitized carbon black (GCB) by orthogonal test. Using 0.05% formic acid water and 0.05%formic acid acetonitrile as mobile phase gradient elution, the target compounds were separated by Shimadzu shim pack C18 column (2.1 mm×50 mm, 2 μm) and determined in positive ion mode. The linear relationship of 9 strobilurin fungicides was good in the range of 1~100 ng/mL, the coefficient of determination was between 0.9942~0.9995. The LOD was 0.05~0.3 μg/kg and the LOQ was 0.2~0.9 μg/kg. At the levels of 2, 10 and 20 μg /kg, the recovery rates of the five vegetables were 77.26%~111.73%, and the relative standard deviation was 0.46%~6.59%. The method is accurate, rapid, convenient and sensitive, which can meet the requirements of trace detection of nine strobilurin fungicides in vegetables.
2021, 42(1): 0-0.  
Abstract(23) PDF(8)
Abstract:
More+
Research and Investigation
Effects of Calcium Hydroxide on Quality of Millet Noodles
LI Jia-xin, WU Tong-jiao, HU Gao-shuang, RAO Huan, WANG Cheng-xiang, ZHANG Jing-xuan, LI Xue-mei, HAO Jian-xiong
2021, 42(1): 1-7,14.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030341
Abstract(23) PDF(21)
Abstract:
This paper studied on the effect of calcium hydroxide on thermodynamic properties of millet dough and qualities of millet noodles,and the mechanism was analyzed. The results showed that the addition of calcium hydroxide had significant effects on the hot-water swelling power,pasting property and endothermic enthalpy of millet flour. When adding 0.1% calcium hydroxide,the hot-water swelling power was the highest,and when adding 0.1% calcium hydroxide,the cooking loss was the lowest. However,continuing to add calcium hydroxide,the cooking loss increased. Due to the presence of calcium hydroxide,the starch gelatinization process was accelerated and the endothermic enthalpy was reduced. Moreover,at this time,the sensory quality and texture characteristics of millet noodles were better,comprehensive acceptability was the highest,and the protein aggregation degree was higher. The microscopic network structure of the internal starch gel was more uniform and compact than the pure millet noodles.
Extraction Kinetics and Antioxidant Activities of Polysaccharides from Seeds of Gleditsia sinensis in Guizhou
FU Jin, YAO Qiu-ping, DENG Shui-xiu, TAN Cheng-jian
2021, 42(1): 8-14.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030017
Abstract(9) PDF(6)
Abstract:
Objective: To study the extraction kinetics and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from seeds of Gleditsia sinensis. Methods: Based on Fick’s first law,the extraction kinetic model was established,and the structure of polysaccharides from seeds of Gleditsia sinensis was analyzed by infrared spectrum.The scavenging ability of polysaccharides from seeds of Gleditsia sinensis on ABTS free radical,hydroxyl autoradical,1,1-diphenyl-2-trinitrophenyl hydrazine(DPPH)free radical and superoxide anion radical was determined to evaluate its antioxidant activity. Results: The results showed that the calculated value of the kinetic model was in good agreement with the actual measured data,which was in accordance with the first-order extraction kinetic model,and the activation energy was 15.023 kJ/mol.The infrared spectrum showed that polysaccharides from seeds of Gleditsia sinensis contained mannose,which was β-type pyran polysaccharide. The antioxidant activity of polysaccharide increased with the increase of concentration. When the concentration was 5 mg/mL,the scavenging rates of ABTS,DPPH and superoxide anion were 71.82%,83.36%,84.00% and 86.11%,respectively. Conclusion: The kinetic model of the polysaccharide extraction was established,and polysaccharides from seeds of Gleditsia sinensis had good antioxidant activity.
Inhibitory Effects of Extracts from Different Parts of Maize on α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase
YANG Xiao-qian, SUN Jia-ming, WU Nan, GAO Xu, ZHI Hui, WU Qi, ZHANG Hui, LI Jing-feng
2021, 42(1): 15-21,27.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030142
Abstract(3) PDF(1)
Abstract:
Objective: To study the inhibitory effects of extracts from different parts of maize(whisker,straw skin,straw core)on the activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase. Methods: The contents of total flavonoids,total saponins,total polysaccharides and total protein extracts in different parts of maize were determined by routine physical and chemical methods. The inhibitory activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase were determined by enzyme substrate reaction and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid colorimetry. The effects of different pH,temperature and time on the activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase were investigated. Results: the optimal conditions of α-glucosidase inhibition were pH6.8,temperature 37 ℃,time 20 min,and pH6.8,temperature 37 ℃,time 10 min. The content of total flavone(5.80%~18.23%),total saponin(7.87%~10.99%),total polysaccharide(24.48%~35.36%)and total protein(9.41%~13.02%)in different parts of maize were significantly different. The inhibitory effect of total flavone extract in different parts of maize on α-glucosidase was significant. The IC50 of total flavone extract in whisker,straw core and straw skin was 0.63,0.35 and 0.13 mg/mL,respectively The maximum inhibition rates of α-amylase at 1,0.5 and 0.125 mg/mL were 36.41%±0.26%,21.46%±1.45% and 14.63%±0.62%. Conclusion: Total flavonoids are the main active components in different parts of maize,which can inhibit the activities of α-glucosidase and α-amylase.
The pH and Ammonia Sensitivity and Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanins from Lycium ruthenicum
ZHANG Mei-qing, ZENG Fan-sen, YE Yan-qi, ZHENG Shi-yu, LI Jie, FEI Peng
2021, 42(1): 22-27.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030182
Abstract(2) PDF(2)
Abstract:
In this paper,the anthocyanin extracted from dried Chinese wolfberry was extracted with ethanol as the extraction liquid,and its pH sensitivity,response to volatile ammonia and meat putrid gas,and antioxidant activity were studied. The results showed that the anthocyanin content in the anthocyanin concentrate was 291.93 mg/L. The anthocyanins of Lycium ruthenicum had good pH sensitivity,and the color of anthocyanin solution changed significantly between pH1 and pH13. As the pH value increased,the solution changed from purple pink to light green,yellow-green,brown-yellow and bright yellow,and the corresponding wavelength of the maximum absorption peak shifted from 522 nm to 619 nm. Black fruit of Chinese wolfberry anthocyanins on volatile ammonia and corruption for meat gas response effect was good,when the ammonia concentration increased,anthocyanins solution maximum absorption peak decreased,and its corresponding wavelength was obviously red shifted,and the higher the concentration of ammonia,the faster the reaction rate,the lower the freshness of meat food and the faster the volatilization of volatile base nitrogen gas. The full band scanning pattern of the meat products was similar to that in ammonia water.Anthocyanin solution and vitamin C(VC)solution were both with strong hydroxyl radical scavenging rate and anthocyanin solution had stronger scavenging capacity than VC,and the IC50 of the two was 5.54 and 10.19 mg/L,respectively. The results can provide a reference for the development and utilization of Lycium barbarum anthocyanins.
Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of N-Propionyl-Neuraminic Acid Derivative and Its Application in the Determination of Sialic Acid Content in Poultry Eggs
WANG Mao-mao, ZHANG Yao-yao, YAO Hong-liang, LIU Li, JOSEF Voglmeir
2021, 42(1): 28-34,41.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020010142
Abstract(5) PDF(1)
Abstract:
To realize the accurate quantification of N-acetylneuraminic acid(Neu5Ac)in egg yolk and egg white of poultry,and eliminate the matrix effect caused by substances other than analytes in egg samples,5-bromo-4-chloro-3-indolyl-β-D-galactopyranoside-N-propionyl-sialic acid(X-Gal-α-2,6-Neu5Prop)was synthesized by chemical enzymatic method using mannosamine as substrate. The hydrolysis characteristics and stability of the derivative under acidic conditions were studied. The content of Neu5Ac in egg yolk and egg white of quail,goose,guinea fowl,ostrich,duck,pigeon and turkey was determined by using the derivative as internal standard. The glycoconjugates of sialic acid were dissociated into free sialic acid after being treated in acidic condition. The samples were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detector(HPLC-FLD).It was found that the hydrolysis rate of X-gal-α-2,6-Neu5aAc and X-gal-α-2,6-Neu5Prop at the same concentration were similar under the condition of 2 mol/L acetic acid solution at 80 ℃,which could be completely converted into free sialic acid after 90 min. The stability of Neu5Ac and Neu5Prop were similar at 10 h. The Neu5Ac content of the egg whites showed a wide variation across species. Quail egg whites had the lowest concentration of Neu5Ac(0.13 mg/g),while the ostrich had the highest(2.20 mg/g),which was seventeen times higher nearly. And Neu5Ac content of chicken egg yolk and albumen was found to be in agreement with previous reports. The method of analysis described herein could eliminate the matrix effect in biological samples and quantify the content of Neu5Ac accurately,with facile sample preparation requirements and was well suited to the routine analysis of foodstuffs.
Prediction Model to Evaluate the Water-holding Capacity of the Smoked and Cooked Sausages
ZHANG Qiu-hui, HAO Wan-ming, LI Miao-yun, ZHU Yao-di, ZHANG Jian-wei, ZHAO Gai-ming
2021, 42(1): 35-41.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030019
Abstract(6) PDF(3)
Abstract:
In order to construct the prediction model for evaluating the water-holding capacity of the smoked and cooked sausages,the quality characters were detected,including hardness,springiness,cohesiveness,chewiness,water-holding capacity(WHC),and fat-holding capacity of cooked and smoked sausages with different kinds of gums. The relationship between the quality characters of smoked sausage was studied by the multivariate analysis methods such as principal component analysis and cluster analysis. The results showed that except agar,all the gums had significant effects on the WHC and the FHR(P<0.05). Agar had no significant effects on springiness,fragility,adhesiveness(P>0.05),cordravan and konjac gum had no significant effects on springiness,cohesiveness(P>0.05),κ-carrageenan had no significant effects on springiness(P<0.05),but all the other gums had significant effects on the texture characters(P<0.05). There were significant positive relationships between hardness and springiness,between hardness and chewiness,between springiness and chewiness,between WHC and FHR,between WHC and cohesiveness(P<0.01),but there was significant negative relationship between WHC and chewiness(P<0.01). The key quality evaluation characters such as springiness and chewiness were selected. The comprehensive quality evaluation model of cooked and smoked sausages Y1=0.48424×A1+0.1552×A2(Y1 represents comprehensive quality,A1,A2 represent meat springiness and chewiness,respectively),and the water-holding capacity prediction model Y2=0.00019A1A2-0.01851A1-0.0059A2+92.58(Y2 represents water-holding capacity,A1,A2 represent meat springiness and chewiness,respectively)were established. By verification,the accuracy factor(Af=1.004080)and deviation factor(Bf=1.001969)were close to 1,so this model could make the WHC of products predicted and regulated.
Effect of Ultra-high Pressure on Gel Properties of Unwashed Nemipterus virgatus Surimi
ZHANG Zhi-ming, YI Shu-min, LI Xue-peng, BU Ying, MU Wei-li, YU Jian-yang, LAO Min-jun, LI Jian-rong
2021, 42(1): 42-47,53.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019110262
Abstract(5) PDF(1)
Abstract:
In this paper,the effect of different pressure and dwell time on the gel strength,TPA,water holding capacity,cooking loss,whiteness,pH and microstructure of Nemipterus virgatus surimi were studied. The results showed that the gel strength increased with the increase of pressure and increased first and then decreased with the increase of dwell time,and reached the maximum value of 1150.71 g·mm at 300 MPa and reached the maximum value of 1355.17 g·mm at 20 min. The hardness of surimi gel treated by ultrahigh pressure was higher than that of heat treated surimi gel,and reached the maximum at 300 MPa and 20 min. The water holding capacity first increased and then decreased with the increase of pressure,reached the maximum value of 72.72% at 300 MPa,and 70.23% at 30 min. The continuous treatment did not change significantly. The cooking loss rate first decreased and then increased with the increase of pressure,reaching the minimum value of 17.88% at 300 MPa. With the increase of pressure,the whiteness of gel increased gradually,and reached the maximum value at 500 MPa,which increased by 14.29% compared with 200 MPa. With the increase of dwell time,the whiteness value increased gradually and reached the maximum at 60 min. At 300 MPa and 20 min,the mesh structure of fish sausage was the most compact and the pores were uniform.
Study on the Stability of (-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate
HAO Jing, YANG Tai-qin, WANG Han, WANG Xu, NI Juan
2021, 42(1): 48-53.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020020035
Abstract(2) PDF(1)
Abstract:
Objective: To analyze the environmental conditions of(-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate(EGCG)oxidative polymerization and the effects of changes in its stability on the redox balance of the test cells,and to lay the foundation for an in-depth study of the role of EGCG in cell culture systems and living organisms. Methods: The research set different conditions of solution environment,EGCG concentration,temperature,time,pH,to evaluate the difference of EGCG oxidative polymerization under different conditions by detecting the change of OD578 value. Result: The results showed that RPMI1640 and DMEM medium were more favorable for EGCG oxidation polymerization than H2O. High temperature and high EGCG concentration and alkaline conditions promoted EGCG oxidation polymerization. At the same time,the oxidative polymerization of EGCG intensified with the extension of the reaction time. In a cell-containing culture system,EGCG also underwent auto-oxidative polymerization and produced H2O2,which increased the H2O2 concentration inside and outside the cell. However,the intracellular H2O2 concentration showed a trend of first increase and then decrease. Conclusion: Solution environment and pH changes are the key factors that cause EGCG oxidative polymerization. 20 μmol/L EGCG is more conducive to exert antioxidant activity through oxidative polymerization effect in cell culture.
Changes of Lipid-oxidation and Volatile Compounds of Air-dried Golden Pomfret during Processing
WANG Qi, YUE Da-peng, WANG Ran-ran, ZHOU Min, HOU Wen-fu, WANG Rui, LIU Zheng
2021, 42(1): 54-60.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019100005
Abstract(4) PDF(2)
Abstract:
The lipid oxidation and volatile components in the back and abdomen of golden pomfret were studied by salting for 2 days and drying for 3 days. The volatile components in processed products of dried pomfret were analyzed by headspace solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(HS-SPME-GC-MS). The results showed that the lipid oxidation degree of fish back was slightly higher than fish belly. The fatty acid compositions of fish back and fish belly were similar,and saturated fatty acid(SFA)increased gradually by 17.28%,19.32%(P<0.05). The monounsaturated fatty acid(MUFA)decreased gradually by 17.46%,11.53%(P<0.05),polyunsaturated fatty acid(PUFA)decreased gradually by 12.24%,11.52%(P<0.05). 35 and 36 kinds of volatile compounds were detected in the dried fish,and 15 and 14 kinds of volatile compounds were added in the dried fish. Compared with the raw materials and marinade,2-ethyl-1-hexanol with mushroom aroma and sweet fragrance was produced in the air-drying stage,which had a greater influence on the flavor of air-dried gold pomfret.
Effect of Sourdough Fermented by Lactobacillus on the Quality of Green Wheat Kernel Bread
GUO Dong-xu, ZHANG Kang-yi, GAO Ling-ling, ZHANG Can, ZHAO Di
2021, 42(1): 61-67,74.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030018
Abstract(6) PDF(2)
Abstract:
In this study,Lactobacillus plantarum was used to ferment sourdough to made green wheat kernel sourdough bread and the effect of sourdough on the quality of bread was studied. The texture,slow digestible starch content(SDS),volatile flavor compounds and sensory evaluation of samples were determined. The results showed that the addition of sourdough could significantly reduce the hardness,chewiness and increase the elasticity of the samples(P<0.05). The sensory score of bread was closer to wheat bread,and there was no significant difference between green wheat kernel sourdough bread and wheat bread(P>0.05). During the storage,the content of SDS in the sourdough bread was lower than others,which indicated that the addition of sourdough could delay the aging of the bread.32,42 and 46 flavor compounds were detected in wheat bread,green wheat kernel bread and sourdough bread respectively,there were 15 kinds of compounds in all bread,which showed that the addition of sourdough increased the kinds of volatile flavor compounds in bread and improved the flavor of bread. The results showed that the addition of sourdough could effectively improve the quality of green wheat kernel bread.
Study on Preparation of Activated Carbon from Soybean Straw and Its Adsorption Performance on Cu2+
YAN Xiang, ZHANG Shao-fei, WANG Du-liu, PEI Ping, WANG Wen-jian, LI Juan, LI Fei, ZHAO Yan-xia
2021, 42(1): 68-74.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019080216
Abstract(3) PDF(1)
Abstract:
The activated carbon was prepared from soybean straw by using ZnCl2 as the activation agent and analysis methods such as SEM and FT-IR were used to characterize the SSAC. The influence of activation time and activation temperature on methylene blue adsorption value for soybean straw activated carbon were studied,and the adsorption characteristics of Cu2+ using the SSAC in water solution were studied through static experiments,the influence of solution pH value,temperature and time were investigated. The results showed that the optimum preparation conditions were determined as follows: The activation concentration of ZnCl2was 3 mol/L,carbonization temperature was 700 ℃,carbonization time was 40 min. Under this condition,the methylene blue adsorption value for SSAC was 1.84 mL/0.1 g. When the initial concentration of Cu2+ was 10 mg/L,the dosage of SSAC was 0.2 g,SSAC had the best adsorption effect when pH was 5.0,temperature was 50 ℃ and time was 50 min. The maximum adsorption capacity of SSAC was 4.589 mg/g,the removal rate was 91.77%. The morphology and structure of active carbon were observed by SEM and FT-IR,the activated carbon had rich and developed fracture structure based on multi-layer graphite,which was rich in oxygen-containing functional groups such as hydroxyl carboxyl ketonic carbonyl aliphatic ether and ester group on the surface. Therefore,this activated carbon has a good adsorption performance for Cu2+ ions,it is suitable for treating wastewater containing Cu2+ and metal ion adsorption.
Effects of Licorice Extract on Oxidation and Quality Characteristics of Fat and Protein in Refrigerated Chicken Meat Batter
XIONG Jie, BO Zhao-ying, CHANG Hai-jun
2021, 42(1): 75-81,88.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030319
Abstract(2) PDF(1)
Abstract:
In this study,fresh chicken leg meat was used as the raw material. After being crushed into minced meat,three licorice extracts(commercially available extracts group,water extracts group,and alcohol extracts group)of the same concentration(10%)were added as antioxidants,and refrigerated for different days(1,3,5,7,9 d)for the corresponding quality indicators(thiobarbituric acid value(TBARS),acid value(AV),peroxide value(POV),carbonyl content,thiol content,surface hydrophobicity,color and texture)to evaluate the effects of different licorice extracts on the fat,protein and color quality of frozen chicken meat. The results showed that the licorice extract could effectively inhibit the decrease of a* value and the increase of b* value,improve the quality of meat and maintain good texture characteristics,inhibit the increase of acid value,peroxide value and TBARS to control fat oxidation. Licorice water extracts had the best effect on inhibiting carbonyl formation,reducing sulfhydryl group loss and decreasing surface hydrophobicity,followed by alcohol extracts. Therefore,three licorice extracts can improve the quality characteristics of chicken meat,and inhibit the oxidation of fat and protein,the water extracts have the best effects on inhibiting the oxidation of fat and protein,and the alcohol extracts have the best effects on inhibiting the color and texture change of chicken meat.
The Processing and Storage Characteristics of Sichuan Sauce-flavored Air-dried Sausage and Its Characteristics of “Shallow Fermentation”
WANG Wei, ZHANG Xu, ZHANG Jia-min, JI Li-li, KANG Jun, BAI Ting
2021, 42(1): 82-88.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030005
Abstract(4) PDF(1)
Abstract:
The characteristics of physicochemical,microbiological,and flavor substances during processing and storage of Sichuan sauce-flavored dried sausage were studied. The results showed that pH,water content,and aw values gradually decreased during the Sichuan sauce-flavored dried sausage processing,and stabilized until the storage phase. Especially the pH decline of Sichuan sauce-flavored dried sausage was greater than that of conventional sausages and less than that of western-style fermented sausages. The total number of colonies gradually increased and stabilized during the processing stage,while the lactic acid bacteria increased firstly and then gradually decreased to some extent. There were two stages for Micrococcus. During the first stage,the air-drying fermentation period,Micrococcus increased to approximately 104 CFU/g,and increased at a low rate to 105 CFU/g during the second stage and remained stable. The total free amino acids(TAA),essential amino acids(EAA),and umami amino acids(DAA)in the sausages increased along with the drying time. The study showed that the Sichuan sauce-flavored dried sausage had the most types and amount of volatile flavor materials,and the largest proportion of volatile flavor materials was olefin compounds,followed by esters and alcohols. The volatile flavor components showed significant differences in the types and amount at different processing and storage stages. Analysis of the results showed that the sauce-flavored dried sausage exhibited unique shallow fermentation characteristics. Even after the packaging storage period,changes in indicators such as microorganisms and flavor components showed a certain post-fermentation effect,which needs further investigation.
Comparative Analysis of Edible Quality of Three Varieties of Boiled Chicken
XU Yuan, HAN Min-yi, CHEN Yan-ping, LI Chun-bao, DENG Shao-lin, LI Ling-yun, LIU Yuan
2021, 42(1): 89-95.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020050025
Abstract(3) PDF(1)
Abstract:
In order to explore the quality differences of boiled chicken processed with different raw materials,the quality indexes of three regular consuming species(Mahuang,Tuer,and Huangyou)of chicken were compared and analyzed. The basic quality indexes of boiled chicken breast and thigh,which were cooked in traditional way,were determined by standard or authoritative method,and then the principal component analysis(PCA)was also carried out using the data above. According to the above test results,the 9-point hedonic scaling was used in sensory evaluation to evaluate the breast and thigh meat of which specie showed better stability and edible quality. The results showed that the basic physical and chemical indexes such as pH,water content,and color of chicken breast and thigh meat from different varieties of boiled chicken were significantly different(P<0.05). The lower pH value,lower water content,pliable meat texture,and bright yellow color skin was found in Huangyou boiled chicken. The shear force and moisture of Huangyou boiled chicken products fluctuated greatly. The meat of Mahuang boiled chicken was softer and juicier,which had more desirable taste,and its quality was relatively stable for the industrial production. The lower pH and moisture content was detected in Huangyou boiled chicken and its shearing force was the highest with the bright yellow color. The boxplots of shearing force and moisture showed slight oscillations. The values of quality indicators of Tuer were between Mahuang and Huangyou. The PCA results showed that quality indexes of Mahuang and Tuer were close to each other,which also were obviously grouped against Huangyou. Based on the analysis of pH,moisture and texture indexes,the meat of Mahuang species was tender and more stable in edible quality. Sensory evaluation of boiled Mahuang chicken showed that breast meat had higher overall preference than leg meat,which was consistent with the results of physical and chemical indexes. In this study,the basic quality indexes of boiled chicken were determined to provide reference for the selection of raw materials of high-quality chicken products. It could promote the theoretical basis for the expansion of the quality database and standardization of boiled chicken.
Effects of Different Drying and Grinding Methods on the Powder Characteristics and Nutritional Components of Auricularia nigricans Powder
LIANG Xiao-jun, LIAO Cai-xue, HUANG Zhen-yong, WANG Dong-mei, WEI Xin-ping, DAN Ming, ZHANG E-zhen
2021, 42(1): 96-100,109.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030158
Abstract(4) PDF(1)
Abstract:
In order to explore the suitable preparation technology of Auricularia nigricans powder,hot air drying,vacuum freeze drying and microwave vacuum drying were compared,and ordinary grinding and ultra-fine grinding were compared respectively after drying in this experiment. At the same time,differences of the characteristics and nutrient contents of the whole Auricularia nigricans powder prepared by different treatments were evaluated. The result showed that,the powder fluidity and filling ability were significantly better than other treatments(P<0.05),which were dried by hot air drying mode,however,the best way to hold water and oil was vacuum freeze-drying. Superfine grinding could improve the powder properties,but the fluidity and filling ability would decrease,the wetting and sinking time of ultrafine powder was significantly longer than that of ordinary powder(P<0.05).In terms of nutrient content,the best dried mode was vacuum freeze drying,microwave vacuum drying ranked second,the hot air drying mode had a great loss of nutrients. Superfine grinding could improve the dissolution rate of Auricularia nigricans powder nutritional components to some extent. It is concluded that the ultra-fine powder of vacuum freeze-drying of Auricularia nigricans is suitable for the further processing of functional food.
More+
Bioengineering
Isolation and Identification of Dominant Spoilage Bacteria in Trachinotus ovatus during Chilled Storage and Their Spoilage Capability
YU Shu-chi, YANG Yi, FENG Zi-lan, LIANG Yu-qing, XU Xiao-xiong, PEI Zhi-sheng, YANG Bo
2021, 42(1): 101-109.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030307
Abstract(6) PDF(3)
Abstract:
In order to study the dominant spoilage bacteria and their spoilage capability of Trachinotus ovatus fillets at the end of chilled storage,traditional selective medium method and 16S rDNA sequence analysis method were taken to isolate,purify,analyze and determine the spoilage bacteria in Trachinotus ovatus during chilled storage. The spoilage capability of dominant spoilage bacteria at the end of storage was quantitatively analyzed by YTVB-N/CFU. The results showed that 16 strains of bacteria(10 Gram-negative strains and 6 Gram positive strains,belonging to 6 bacterial genus)were isolated from Trachinotus ovatus during storage. The microbial species was rich at the beginning of the storage(0 d),Shewanella sp,Pseudomonas sp,Staphylococcus sp,Bacillus sp,Lactobacillus sp and Enterobacter sp all appeared. The microbial species were decreased in the middle of storage(3 d),only Shewanella sp and Pseudomonas sp were dominant in quantity. The microbial species were further decreased at the end of storage,which only 3 strains were dominant. They were Shewanella putrefaciens(No.2)48%,Shewanella oneidensis(No.5)26.6% and Enterobacter hormaechei(No.16)19.4%. The order of spoilage capabilities was as follows: Shewanella putrefaciens > Shewanella oneidensis > Enterobacter hormaechei. The spoilage ability of Shewanella putrefaciens is much higher than that of two species. Based on the results of the proportion and the spoilage capacity at the end of the storage,it was determined that Shewanella putrefaciens was the dominant Spoilage Bacteria in Trachinotus ovatus during 4 ℃ storage.
Optimization of Chitinase Production by the Photobacterium sp.LG-1
CHEN Li-gong, WU Jia-wei, ZHANG Ran, ZHANG Qing-fang, CHI Nai-yu, WANG Xiao-hui
2021, 42(1): 110-114,131.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019120161
Abstract(6) PDF(3)
Abstract:
To increase chitinase activity,response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation conditions of cold-adapted chitinase by Photobacterium sp. LG-1. The result of Plackett-Burman showed that the important factors influencing chitinase production were fermentation temperature,fermentation time and yeast extract. The optimal fermentation conditions were determined as followed: colloidal chitin 12.0 g/L,yeast extract 4.5 g/L,shaking speed 220 r/min,fermentation temperature 20 ℃,liquid volume 75 mL/250 mL,inoculums dose 1%,pH7.0,and fermentation time 120 h,respectively. Under these conditions,the max enzyme activity of chitinase was 5.10 U/mL.The maximum theoretic value was consistent with mean value of verification test and the chitinase production was increased by 11.50% comparing to that before optimization.It provides a reference for the research on the degradation mechanism of low-temperature chitinase and its application in industry.
Physiological Mechanism for Enhanced Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Biosynthesis by Sodium Nitrate in Arthrobacter sp. CCTCC M2013431
LI Zhi-gang, GU Yang, CHEN Bao-feng, WANG Bao-shi, ZHANG Zhong-hua, CHANG Jing-ling
2021, 42(1): 115-120,131.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030025
Abstract(3) PDF(1)
Abstract:
Objectives: The aim of this study is to elucidate the physiological mechanism for enhanced cyclic adenosine monophosphate biosynthesis by nitrate in Arthrobacter sp. CCTCC M2013431. Methods: Firstly,optimal sodium nitrate adding condition was determined by fermentations conducted in shaking flask and cAMP fermentation with optimal condition was carried out in a 7 L fermentation tank. Then,fermentation kinetic parameters,nitrate utilization,reducing force level,key enzymes activities,intracellular amino acids levels and energy metabolism were analyzed. Results: Due to the addition of 3 g/L-broth sodium nitrate into fermentation broth at 24 h,cAMP concentration and yield on glucose achieved 5.02 g/L and 0.097 g/g,with the improvements of 22.7% and 29.8%,respectively,when compared with those of control. Activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase were improved greatly by lower NADPH levels caused by plentiful consumption during nitrate reduction process,meanwhile,the metabolic intensity of glycolysis pathway was weakened while activities of key enzymes in pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were significantly increased. More carbon flux was directed into pentose phosphate pathway and purine synthesis pathway for cAMP production. In addition,intracellular precursor amino acids levels,NADH/NAD+ and ATP/AMP ratios were also enhanced greatly by nitrate which supply sufficient energy for cAMP synthesis. Conclusion: Nitrate utilization consumed redundant reducing force which changed the distribution of metabolic flux among different pathways,and improved intracellular amino acids levels and ATP synthesis,then cAMP fermentation synthesis was promoted greatly. The physiological mechanism of nitrate for enhanced cAMP biosynthesis provided reference materials for nucleotide fermentation production.
Effect on Bioactive Components and Antioxidant Activity of Pueraria lobata Fermented by Eurotium cristatum
DU Jing, WANG Qi-qi, WANG Yun-sheng, ZHANG Chuan-bo
2021, 42(1): 121-125,131.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019120314
Abstract(4) PDF(2)
Abstract:
The present study aim to illuminate the changes of predominant bioactive components and the antioxidant activity of Pueraria lobata fermented by Eurotium cristatum. The total flavonoid content of solid fermented product and unfermented P. lobata were determined using ultraviolet spectrophotometry. High pressure liquid chromatograph(HPLC)analysis was applied to identify dynamic changes of some specific bioactive components in P. lobata,including puerarin,daidzin and daidzein,and DPPH radical scavenging capacities of fermentation products were also evaluated. The results showed that the content of total flavonoids of P. lobata increased significantly comparied with unfermented P. lobata,and the contents of pueraria and daidzein 1.6,4.9 and 0.5 times higher than those before fermentation but daizin was decreased 1/2,respectively. The IC50of free radical scavenging rate of unfermented product and fermented were(2.2177±0.0484)and(0.8359±0.0047) mg/mL,respectively. There was significant difference between them,which indicating that the antioxidant activity of fermented P. lobata was superior to the unfermented P. lobata. The study could provide evidence for the biotransformation probability of the Chinese herbs and realize the modernization of Chinese traditional medicine.
Bacterial and Fungal Diversity of Rice Wine Koji in Jianshi Aera
XIANG Fan-shu, ZHU Yuan-yuan, DENG Feng, ZHONG Xiao-dan, ZHANG Zhen-dong, GUO Zhuang
2021, 42(1): 126-131.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020020221
Abstract(4) PDF(4)
Abstract:
In this study,MiSeq high-throughput sequencing technology were used to analyze the bacterial and fungal diversity in 4 rice wine koji samples collected from Jianshi,lacticacid bacterial and yeast strains were also isolated and identified by traditional culture methods. The relative abundances of bacterial genus more than 1.0% were Pseudomonas(40.10%),Pediococcus(14.41%),Weissella(9.62%),Bacillus(5.44%),Enterobacter(3.50%),Pantoea(2.86%),Klebsiella(2.29%)and Lactococcus(2.18%). The relative abundances of fugal genus more than 1.0% were Amylomyces(49.97%),Saccharomycopsis(39.47%)and Wickerhamomyces(3.95%). Ten bacterial and four fungal core operational taxonomic units(OTUs)with relative abundance of more than 1.0% were found in all samples,with the cumulative relative content 61.38% and 93.76%. Ten strains of lacticacid bacteria were isolated and 40% were identified as P. pentosaceus. Meanwhile,10 strains of yeast were isolated and 70% were identified as S.fibuligera. Thus,the Rice Wine Koji in Jianshi area has high microbial diversity.
Effects of Bacillus subtilis on the Stability of Soybean Protein-Phospholipid Composite Emulsion in Vitro Digestion
LIU Xue, GUAN Jun-jun, ZHU Hao, CUI Yao-ming, JI Xu-yang, ZHENG Jian-zhang, LU Xin-kai
2021, 42(1): 132-138.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020010100
Abstract(3) PDF(1)
Abstract:
To investigate the effect of Bacillus subtilis on the stability of a soy protein-phospholipid complex emulsion during digestion. This experiment designed a gastrointestinal digestion model,calculated the emulsification activity index(EAI),emulsification stability index(ESI),turbidity,particle size,Zeta potential,and conducted microscopic observation for O/W and W/O emulsions with and without bacteria to investigate whether the emulsion was separated and flocculated,gathering and floating phenomenon. The results showed that in the digestive stage of the stomach,the EAI,ESI,particle size,and Zeta potential of the O/W and W/O emulsions all significantly reduced,and the micrograph showed that the droplet density reduced and the volume increased. Compared with the without bactericidal emulsion,the index of the emulsion decreased more significantly. In the digestive stage of the small intestine,the EAI and ESI of the O/W and W/O emulsions showed an overall upward trend,while the particle size and potential decreased significantly. In addition,the micrographs of both showed a decrease in droplet density and volume. After adding Bacillus subtilis,the EAI,ESI,particle size of the emulsion significantly reduced,and the potential significantly increased(P<0.05). Based on the above results, Bacillus subtilis promoted the demulsification of soybean protein-phospholipid complex emulsion during digestion.
More+
Processing Technology
Optimization of the Compound Clarifying Agent to Clarify Yam Vinegar by Response Surface Methodology
WANG Mei-hong, CHEN Shan-min, XU Yang, JIANG He-ti
2021, 42(1): 138-143.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030159
Abstract(9) PDF(6)
Abstract:
Single and compound clarifiers which including glutin,pectinase,chitosan,celite were used to clarify the yam vinegar.Based on the method of response surface,a variety of clarifying agents were selected to investigate the effects of transmittance of fermented yam vinegar. The results showed that the establishment of the yam compound clarification response surface model was reliable and stable. The optimal compound clarification process conditions were 5∶2 (g∶g)ratio of diatomite and chitosan,the concentration of composite clarifier was 4 g/L,the clarification temperature was 36.5 ℃,and the clarification time was 83 min. Under the optimized conditions,the transmittance of yam vinegar was 95.8%,27% higher than that of the original vinegar. At the same time,it had no significant effect on other indicators of yam vinegar. Amino acid nitrogen was 0.27 g/100 mL,total acid was 5.29 g/100 mL,soluble solid was 8.74 °BX.The appearance of processed yam vinegar was light yellow brown,transparent without suspended substance,and it had a supple texture.
Optimization and Characteristic Analysis of Apple Hot-air Drying Process
WANG Di-fen, YUAN Ya, WEI Juan, ZHANG Chong, YANG Lu-wei
2021, 42(1): 144-148,155.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030054
Abstract(4) PDF(4)
Abstract:
In order to improve the quality of apple slices during hot-air drying process,ultrasound and color fixative(0.1% NaCl,1.0% sucrose and 0.8% trehalose)were used as pretreatments. Temperature of hot air,thickness of slices and pretreatment were used as experimental factors to orthogonally study the hot-air drying process of apple slices and mathematical model of hot-air drying characteristics of apple slices was established. The results showed that the drying rate increased with the reduction of the slice thickness and the increase of the hot air temperature. Both the ultrasound and the color fixative promoted the drying process. The best hot-air drying process parameters for apple slices were hot air temperature of 60 ℃,thickness of 1.5 mm,and pretreatment method as color fixative.Weibull model was the best model to simulate the hot-air drying characteristics of apple slices. The effective diffusion coefficient of apple slices was among 1.1278×10-8~5.2940×10-8 m2·s-1. The results provided a reference for the actual hot air drying of apple.
Extraction Process Optimization and Physicochemical Properties of Polysaccharide from Wheat Germ Modified by Steam Explosion
HU Lei, YE Peng, PENG Zi-mu, ZHANG Min, LIU Rui, WU Tao, SUI Wen-jie
2021, 42(1): 149-155.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020040256
Abstract(2) PDF(2)
Abstract:
In order to improve the extraction yield of wheat germ polysaccharide,the steam explosion technology was used to pre-treat wheat germ,and then the response surface method was used to optimize the extraction conditions of wheat germ polysaccharide. The optimized extraction conditions of steam explosion wheat germ polysaccharide were the following: extraction time 30 min;extraction temperature 70 ℃;solid-liquid ration 1∶5 (g/mL)and repetition of the extracting procedure 3 times. Under such conditions,polysaccharide yield was 18.72%. The average molecular weight of polysaccharides was mainly composed of 2.26×105,5.91×105 and 1.76×106 Da,and the peak area ratio was 14.56%,17.73% and 67.71%,respectively. The polysaccharide surface structure was flaky with irregular broken,and had good oil holding ability. These results show some preliminary characteristics of the wheat germ polysaccharide,providing a theoretical basis for further understanding wheat germ polysaccharide properties.
Optimization of Fermentation Process and Antioxidant Activity of Polygonati Rhizoma-Jujubae Fructus Fruit Wine by Response Surface Methodology
SONG Yi-jun, GUO Tao, LIU Shi-jun, LV Hui-feng, XU Na-na, YE Jian, JIAO Hui, HE Ru-meng
2021, 42(1): 156-161.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030175
Abstract(4) PDF(1)
Abstract:
Using dry yeast as fermentation starter,fruit wine was produced with Polygonati Rhizoma and Jujubae Fructus as raw materials,and the antioxidant activity of fruit wine was measured. Based on the single factor experiment,taking ratio of Polygonati Rhizoma to Jujubae Fructus,ration of water to material and dry yeast dosage as the influencing factor,the overall normalized value of alcohol content and sensory evaluation score was the response value,the corresponding mathematical models were established by Box-Behnken design. The results showed that the optimal fermentation conditions were determined as follows: Material ratio of 2∶3 (g/g),water/material ratio of 30∶1 (mL/g)and dry yeast dosage of 0.35 g/L,sensory evaluation score and alcohol content were(90.67±1.53),9.23%±0.30%vol;the scavenging rates of DPPH and ABTS free radicals by Polygonati Rhizoma-Jujubae Fructus fruit wine both increased and then decreased,the maximum values reached 99.5% and 92.0% respectively. The optimized fermentation process of Polygonati Rhizoma-Jujubae Fructus fruit wine is feasible,antioxidant activity present peak change during fermentation,it can provide a theoretical basis for fermentation of Polygonati Rhizoma-Jujubae Fructus fruit wine.
Optimization and Kinetics of Thermal Air Drying of Guava
YIN Ai-guo, CHEN Luo-Hua-zhou, TANG Zhi-mei, ZHANG Zhong
2021, 42(1): 162-173,181.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020020183
Abstract(3) PDF(2)
Abstract:
In this paper,the hot-air drying kinetics of guava was studied by single factor hot-air drying experiments at different temperature,loading,salt solution and scalding time. The drying time,drying rate,color,rehydration ratio and unit energy consumption were measured and compared. Three factors,hot air temperature,scalding time and salt concentration,were obtained. The comprehensive effect on drying quality and unit energy consumption was analyzed by response surface analysis(RSM),and the optimum parameter combination was determined. On this basis,the mathematical models of Newton model,Page model,Henderson and Pabis model and multinomial were used to fit the model. The dynamic equation of drying was established,and the effective water diffusion coefficient was calculated to study the water diffusion characteristics and the model was validated.he results showed that the optimum processing parameters of guava were as follows: drying temperature 90 ℃,blanching time 1.99 min,salt concentration 1.96%. The results showed that the drying rate was the fastest,the drying time was 120 min,the value of L* was small,the value of a* and b* were the smallest,the rehydration ratio was 5.82,the energy consumption was 118.04 kJ/g.The best mathematical model is polynomial,and the expression was: Y=-0.0003x5+0.018x4-0.3944x3+3.2166x2-11.364x+99.921,R2 was 0.998. The effective water diffusivity of guava was 9.01×10-9 m2/s. This study provides a theoretical basis for the application of hot-air drying of guava.
Optimization of Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction Process for Total Triterpenoids from Lonicera confuse and Its Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activity
JING Bing-nian, WEI Lei, ZHOU Yong, FAN Yi, LIU Yu-qing, WANG Xue-fang, CHEN Fei, ZHANG Hua-nan, MA Yan-ni, WANG Wei
2021, 42(1): 174-181.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030330
Abstract(4) PDF(1)
Abstract:
The ultrasonic-assisted extraction process of total triterpenoids from Lonicera confuse(TTL)was optimized using the response surface methodology(RSM),and antibacterial and antioxidant activity was analyzed. Taking total triterpenoids yield as evaluation index,on the basis of single factor experiments,the ultrasound extraction process of TTL was optimized using the method of RSM. Double dilution method was used to determine inhibitory effect of TTL against 10 species of common pathogenic bacteria,and free radical scavenging test was employed to investigate antioxidant activity. The results showed that the optimum extraction condition of TTL were as follows: ethanol concentration 60%,ratio of solid to liquid 1∶26 (g/mL),ultrasonic temperature 63 ℃,extraction time 60 min. The yield of total triterpenoids under the optimum conditions was found to 3.37%±0.02%,which was close to the model predictive value. TTL had different degrees of inhibition on the tested strains,and had the strongest inhibitory effects on Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus,Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Streptococcus pyogenes and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC)and the minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC)were all less than 12.5 mg/mL. Moreover,it has good scavenging effect on DPPH and ABTS free radicals,and the scavenging effect has a dose-effect relationship with the concentration of TTL.The optimized ultrasonic-assisted extraction process of TTL was stable and feasible,and the extract had strong broad-spectrum antibacterial effect and good antioxidant activity.
Formulation Optimization of Freeze-Drying Protectant for Probiotics Powder by Vacuum Freeze-Drying
CHEN Sheng-jie, GAO Xiang, YUAN Rong-yu
2021, 42(1): 182-187,196.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020020317
Abstract(4) PDF(2)
Abstract:
In order to improve the survival rate of probiotics lyophilized powder,the effects of freeze-drying protectants on the survival rate of probiotics were studied using vacuum freeze-drying mothod. The protectants included skim milk powder,xylo-oligosaccharides,soluble starch and VCsodium salt and the probiotics included Lactobacillus plantarum SC1, Bacillus coagulans XP2 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae SA1. The optimum combinations were selected by single factor and orthogonal test. With the pre-freezing temperature -70 ℃,2h,and freezing temperature -50 ℃,10 Pa,38h,the best formula combinations of protectant for L. plantarum was soluble starch 10%,VCsodium salt 3%,skim milk powder 12%,xylo-oligosaccharide 14%;the best formula combinations of protectant for B. coagulans was xylo-oligosaccharide 8%,VC sodium salt 4%,soluble starch 14%,skimmed milk powder 8%;the best formula combinations of protectant for S.cerevisiae was xylo-oligosaccharide 10%,VC sodium salt 2%,skimmed milk powder 12%,soluble starch 12%. Under the optimal formula protectant,the freeze-drying survival rate of the three strains were 83.2%,83.7% and 86.7% respectively,and the number of viable bacteria were all higher than 1.0×108 CFU/g,which has a good commercial application value.
Optimization of Processing Technology of Burdock Tea and Antioxidant Activity of Its Polysaccharides in Vitro
DONG Yu-wei, XUE Yun, ZHANG Wen-jing, MIAO Jing-zhi, LIU Fei, LI Wei, MENG Dong
2021, 42(1): 188-196.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030007
Abstract(5) PDF(1)
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to optimize the processing technology of burdock tea,improve the quality of burdock tea,and study the antioxidant activity of polysaccharides in vitro. Microwave-vacuum drying was used to prepare burdock tea. The preheating temperature,vacuum degree,drying temperature and slice thickness were determined by single factor experiment and response surface methodology. The polysaccharide in burdock tea was extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation,and its content was determined by phenol-sulfuric acid method. The polysaccharide was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and their monosaccharide composition was determined by HPLC after deproteinization,dialysis and decolorization. The scavenging capacities of polysaccharide on DPPH·,ABTS+· and ·OH were detected in vitro. The results showed that the highest content of burdock tea polysaccharide was 51.08 mg/g under the conditions of preheating temperature 75 ℃,vacuum degree 0.07 MPa,drying temperature 66 ℃ and slice thickness 3 mm. The water content of burdock tea was 7.85% and the rehydration ratio was 5.46 g/g. Electron microscope showed that burdock tea had a compact and uniform structure and good sensory quality. Infrared spectrum showed that burdock tea polysaccharide had characteristic absorption peaks of typical polysaccharide. The total polysaccharide content of burdock tea increased 1.6 times higher than that of burdock root. In monosaccharide component the glucose content of burdock tea increased 135 times,and the mannose content increased 7 times higher than that of burdock root. The semi-inhibitory concentrations(IC50)of DPPH·,ABTS+· and ·OH from burdock tea polysaccharide were 1.115,1.556 and 1.047 mg/mL,respectively. The burdock tea polysaccharide had good antioxidant activity in vitro with over 65% scavenging rates.
Process Optimization of Soluble Antioxidant Dietary Fiber Extracted from Spongy Layer of Guanxi Honey-pomelo Peels by Ultrasonic Assisted Enzymatic Method
XUE Shan, XIAO Xia, XIE Jian-shan
2021, 42(1): 197-203,210.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030050
Abstract(7) PDF(1)
Abstract:
In this study,the optimal extraction process of soluble antioxidant dietary fiber(SADF)from sponge layer of Guanxipomelo peels was studied to realize comprehensive utilization of honey-pomelo waste and reduce resource waste.Guanxi honey-pomelo peels were selected as raw material,and the SADF from the spongy layer of the peels was extracted by ultrasonic-assistedenzymatic method. Based on the single factor experiment which investigated the influence of ultrasonic action time,solid-liquid ratio,cellulase dosage,cellulase temperature,as well as cellulase action time on both extraction yield and antioxidant activity of SADF,Box-Benhnken dual-response surface optimization experiment characterized with 3 levels and 3 factors,combined with Matlabanalysis was carried out. The optimal technological condition was determined as follows: ultrasonic pre-treatment for 30 min,solid-liquid ratio of 1∶55 g/mL(1∶53~1∶55 g/mL),cellulase dosage of 3%,cellulase action temperature of 50 ℃(48~50 ℃),cellulase action time of 90 min(The upper limit C=90 min). On this condition,the theoretical extraction yield and hydroxyl radical clearance rate of SADF from Guanxi honey-pomelo peels can reach 31.40%(25.12%~31.40%)and 66.16%(51.50%~66.16%),respectively,which showed no significant difference between the actual value(extraction yield: 32.82%±0.33%,clearance rate: 64.43%±1.88%)(P>0.05). It can be seen that the SADF of the sponge layer from pomelo peels obtained under the optimized process conditions by Box-Benhnken combined with Matlab was of better extraction yield and hydroxyl radical clearance rate,so that providing a new idea for the extraction and application of functional raw materials.
Optimization of the Sterilization Process of Slightly Acidic Electrolyzed Water and Its Effect on the Storage Quality of Yunnan Fresh Rice Noodles
ZHOU Zhi-yu, LUO Zheng-ya, GAO Qing, HE Jin-song
2021, 42(1): 204-210.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030389
Abstract(3) PDF(2)
Abstract:
To investigate the optimization of the sterilization process of fresh rice noodles by slightly acidic electrolyzed water(SAEW)and to find out the regularity of quality changes during the storage process of rice noodles. The conditions of SAEW sterilization on fresh rice noodles were optimized by response surface methodology using slightly acidic electrolytic water processing temperature,processing time and ratio of material to liquid as independent values respectively and the order of magnitude of death microorganism as response value. The fresh rice noodles were investigated with the best processing parameters and stored in a 27 ℃ incubator. Periodically determine the total surface colonies,moisture content,total acidity,pH value and color value of the fresh rice noodles during the storage process,and discuss the SAEW treatment. Sterile water treatment was used as control. The optimal processing conditions for SAEW were as follows: Processing temperature of 21 ℃,processing time of 15 min,and material-liquid ratio of 1∶16 (m∶V).Under this technological condition,the theoretical value of the death order of the total number of colonies was 3.09 lg CFU/g. Three verification experiments were carried out and the actual average colony death magnitude was (3.01±0.09) lg CFU/g. Under this condition,SAEW treatment could effectively control the number of microorganisms on the surface of the sample,at the same time delayed browning and increased in total acidity,reduced the loss of moisture content,and had no significant effect on pH.After the storage of fresh rice noodles after treatment,the total number of surface colonies was 7.46 lg CFU/g,and the total acidity was 0.392 g/100 g,which was lower than 8.73 lg CFU/g and 0.49 g/100 g of the control group,respectively. Color value was 39.73 and the water content was 0.69,which was higher than the control group’s 35.57 and 0.65.The pH was 4.64.The results show that the treatment of wild bacteria by SAEW can not only control the growth of microorganisms on the surface,but also slow down the deterioration of storage quality. The results can provide a theoretical basis for studying the application of slightly acidic electrolyzed water in the processing of fresh and wet rice noodles.
Optimization of Ultrasonic-Assisted Extraction of Polyphenols in the Purple Passionfruit Leaves by Response Surface Methodology and Its Antioxidant Activity
HE Yin-ju, ZHANG Xuan-jun, YANG Zai-bo, PENG Xin-mei, MAO Shen-fa
2021, 42(1): 211-216,226.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030146
Abstract(5) PDF(2)
Abstract:
To optimize the extraction technology and antioxidant activity of polyphenols from purple passionfruit leaves. On the basis of a single factor test,the material to solvent ratio,extraction time,ultrasonic power and ultrasonic temperature were the factors,and the Box-Beheken was used to design test program. The optimal extraction technology was as follows: Solvent to material ratio 36∶1 mL/g,extraction time 54 min,ultrasonic power 350 W and temperature 70 ℃. Under the above conditions,the extraction amount of polyphenols from purple passionfruit leaves was(13.19±0.17) mg/g. The test of antioxidant activity showed that the polyphenols from purple passionfruit leaves had better antioxidant activity,and half inhibition concentrations(IC50)of DPPH and hydroxyl radicals were 0.058 mg/mL and 0.144 mg/mL,respectively.
More+
Food Safety
Removal of Natural Deep Eutectic Solvents on Heavy Metals in Porphyra haitanensis and Its Effects on Its Quality
YANG Xi, XU Yong-qiang, ZANG Yuan-yuan, CHEN Zhi-gang
2021, 42(1): 217-226.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030186
Abstract(4) PDF(2)
Abstract:
Natural deep eutectic solvents(NADESs)are green solvents. In this paper,28 kinds of NADESs of 2 types were prepared,and this manuscript aimed to study the removal of Pb,Cd,Cr,As,Cu from Porphyra haitanensis(P. haitanensis)by using NADESs and to optimize the removal conditions. At the same time,it explored the impact on the quality of P. haitanensis during removal. Results showed that the removals were significantly improved by NADESs compared with control where the removal rates of Pb,Cd,Cr,As and Cu were 17.40%~87.54%,57.54%~100.00%,9.80%~48.59%,21.32%~78.24% and 11.68%~79.73%,respectively. The optimal condition was 10% water content(v/v)and solid-liquid ratio of 1∶20. In addition,the addition of 20%(v/v)natural surfactant arabic gum(AG,1%)could further increase the heavy metals removal rates of NADESs. During the removal of heavy metals,NADESs of different substrates had different effects on the quality of P. haitanensis. Compared with the control,the soluble protein content in P. haitanensis significantly decreased after elution(P<0.01),and there was no significant change in polysaccharides and fats. NADESs would not affect the sensory quality of P. haitanensis,and the main impact on the texture was the reduction of elasticity. Therefore,for the first time,a green and effective method for removing heavy metals from P. haitanensis was established in this study,which enriched the application of NADESs in food and provided new ideas for the removal of heavy metal in algae food.
More+
Analysis and Determination
pH Responded Colorimetric ELISA for Sensitive Detection of Salmonella Choleraesuis in Milk
LI Qian-ying, ZHANG Kang-kang, ZHOU Yao-feng, HUANG Xiao-lin, LI Xiang-min, XIONG Yong-hua
2021, 42(1): 227-232.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019100100
Abstract(6) PDF(2)
Abstract:
Human maybe get poisoning after eating Salmonella choleraesuis-infected food. Thus,developing a new analytical technology for rapid and sensitive detection of Salmonella choleraesuis in food is urgently needed. Hence,a pH responded colorimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(pH-ELISA)was developed for sensitive detection of Salmonella choleraesuis in milk. In this method,glucose oxidase(GOx)was used to catalyze glucose for the generation of gluconic acid. The color of bromocresol purple(BCP)was changed from purple to bright yellow because the pH of sample solution decreased. Under the optimal conditions,the proposed method achieved two linear independent regression equations. When Salmonella choleraesuis concentration increased from 2.54×103 to 6.17×105 CFU/mL,the first regression equation was described as y1=0.1051ln(x)+0.7024(R2=0.7513). With the increase of Salmonella choleraesuis concentration from 6.17×105 to 1.67×107 CFU/mL,the second regression equation was expressed as y2=1.3216ln(x)-15.797(R2=0.9711). The average recoveries of the proposed method for spiked milk samples at Salmonella choleraesuis concentrations ranging from 2.5×103~5.6×106 CFU/mL were 72.16%~103.58% with the relative standard deviations ranging from 7.54%~15.30%. In conclusion,the developed colorimetric ELISA is suitable for the rapid and sensitive quantitation of Salmonella choleraesuis in milk.
Detection of Nine Organotin Compounds in Seafood by Dispersive Solid Phase Extraction Combined with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry
WANG Heng, HU Hong-mei, GUO Yuan-ming, JIN Yan-jian, YANG Cheng-hu
2021, 42(1): 233-238.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030184
Abstract(7) PDF(6)
Abstract:
A method was developed for the simultaneous detection of nine organotin compounds in seafood. The samples were subjected to ultrasonic extraction,freeze degreasing,N-propylethylenediamine(PSA)dispersive solid phase extraction,sodium tetraethylborate derivative,graphitized carbon black(GCB)dispersive solid phase extraction,and finally analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS). Under the optimized conditions,the linear range of the nine organotin compounds was 10~1000 μg/L,the correlation coefficient was 0.9952~0.9988 and the detection limit(3S/N)was 0.4~1.0 μg/kg(dry weight,calculated as Sn). The recoveries at the three added levels of 2.00,20.0,and 200 μg/kg were 81.2%~115.0%,and the relative standard deviations were 4.1%~7.5%(n=5). Nine kinds of organotin compounds were tested in seafood such as Bombay duck,Collichthys niveatus,small yellow croaker,big yellow croaker,largehead hairtail,pomfret,moray eel,Parapenaeopsis hardwickii,mantis shrimp,port crab,Sinonovacula constricta and oyster,the results showed that nine kinds of organotin compounds were not detected in Collichthys niveatus,small yellow croaker,big yellow croaker and moray eel. The total amount of nine kinds of organotin compounds in Bombay duck,largehead hairtail,pomfret,Parapenaeopsis hardwickii,mantis shrimp,port crab,Sinonovacula constricta and oyster was ND~162.0 μg/kg(wet weight,as Sn). This method is simple and efficient,and has low matrix interference. It can be used for the simultaneous detection of nine organotin compounds in seafood samples.
Determination of Thirteen PFCs in Animal-derived Food by Improved QuEChERS Extraction Coupled with Ultra-high Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry
WANG Ying, DU Si-yu, ZHANG Hong, ZHANG Yu-hui, LI Ling, WANG Yan-hong, LI Guo-chen
2021, 42(1): 239-249.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030192
Abstract(5) PDF(2)
Abstract:
A method of ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(UPLC-ESI-MS/MS)combined with improved QuEChERS was established for the determination of 13 perfluorinated compounds(PFCs)in animal-derived food. The samples were extracted with 0.2% hydrochloric acid acetonitrile and cleaned up with a sorbent mixture of N-propylethylenediamine(PSA),octadecyl bonded silica gel(C18)and graphitized carbon black(GCB). The PFCs were separated by an Atlantis T3 reversed-phase column using gradient elution with a mixed solution of 2.5 mmol/L ammonium acetate methanol and 2.5 mmol/L ammonium acetate,and detected by electrospray ionization in negative mode using the multiple reaction monitoring(MRM)mode. The samples were quantified using isotope internal standard.The calibration curves of 13 PFCs were linear in the concentration range of 0.05~10 ng/mL. The limits of detection(LODs)were between 0.02 and 0.05 μg/kg,and the limits of quantitation(LOQs)were between 0.06 and 0.15 μg/kg. At the spiked levels of 0.2,1 and 2 μg/kg,the average recoveries were in the range of 62.3%~119.3%,with relative standard deviations(RSDs)of 3.5%~19.9%. With its simplicity,accuracy and high sensitivity,this method is suitable for the identification and quantification of 13 PFCs in animal-derived food.
Analysis of Aroma Components of Alternative Tea for Acacia Robinia Pseudoacacia Flowers in Different Processing Techniques
LIU Wei, ZHANG Yong-rui, LU Jing, GUO Gui-yi, CHEN Yi
2021, 42(1): 250-256.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020040062
Abstract(8) PDF(2)
Abstract:
To explore the different characteristics of the main aroma components of locust flower substitute tea with different processing techniques,the fresh Robinia pseudoacacia L. flower were used to produce substitute tea by five processing technologies with sun-dried green tea,baked green tea,fried green tea,white tea and black tea. The volatile compounds of Robinia pseudoacacia L. flower substitute teas were identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The relative odor activity value(ROAV)was used to evaluate the contribution of aroma components to the overall flavor of Robinia pseudoacacia L. flower substitute teas to identify the key odor compounds. The results showed that seventy-five volatile constituents with a sense of smell were detected from the Robinia pseudoacacia L. flower substitute teas including alkenes,aromatic hydrocarbons,alcohols,aldehydes,ketones,acids,phenols,esters,lactones,nitrogenous compounds and miscellaneous oxygen compounds. The main compounds were aldehydes(16 species),alcohols(12 species),alkenes(11 species)and esters(10 species). There were 13 species common compounds which were styrene,2-pentylfuran,5-isopropyl-2-methylphenol,limonene,benzyl alcohol,phenylacetaldehyde,phenethyl alcohol,decanal,beta-cyclocitral,2-phenylcrotonaldehyde,methyl anthranilate,D-longifolene and ethyl palmitate. The common key odor compounds were decanal and limonene. Five different processing technologies were used to substitute locust flower tea with different main aroma components. Among the key odor compounds under different process conditions,linalool,(E,E)-2,4-nonadienal,and(E)-2-nonenal are unique aroma substances in the tanning process. Naphthalene is a unique aroma substance in the baking process. 2-Methylbutyraldehyde is a unique aroma substance in the roasting process. 1-Octen-3-ol is a unique aroma substance in the fermentation process.
Effects of Different Cooking Methods on the Quality and Volatile Aroma Components of Wrapped Pork Chops
LIU Shu-ping, FANG Wei-jia, SHI Chang-bo
2021, 42(1): 257-265,270.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019120288
Abstract(4) PDF(1)
Abstract:
In order to explore the effect of different cooking methods on the quality and flavor of wrapped pork chops,the effects of different cooking methods(decocting,frying,and baking)on the texture,water content,maximum shape variables,cooking loss rate and flavor of fried pork chops were studied by conventional physicochemical methods. The results showed that the effect of decocting and baking on the shear strength of pork chops was significant(P<0.05),while frying temperature had a significant effect on the mastication of wrapped pork chops(P<0.05). Compared with frying and baking samples,cooking loss rate and water diversion loss was less in decocting samples. In terms of electronic nose result,the principal component analysis and linear discriminant analysis could quantify the contribution rate of principal components and the difference of flavor among samples. Furthermore,the flavor results showed that the flavor compounds obtained by the three cooking methods mainly included five categories: alcohols,aldehydes,esters,acids,and heterocycles. The highest flavor types were decocting(44),followed by baking(37),and frying(35). The relative content of alcohol was higher in decocting and frying,while the relative content of hydrocarbon was higher in baking. There were 12 kinds of sane volatile substances in the three cooking methods,and 7,3,9 kinds of unique components in decocting,frying,and baking. In general,from the perspective of food quality and flavor,fried pork chops were golden in color,soft and tender in taste,outstanding in flavor and better in quality.
Optimization of HPLC Method for Determination of Lactulose in Liquid Milk
LI Sheng-nan, ZHANG Min-jie, HU Hao-xin, FENG Pei-yan, ZENG Jing, WEI Xiao-qun
2021, 42(1): 266-270.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030194
Abstract(5) PDF(3)
Abstract:
In order to quantify the content of lactulose in liquid milk easily and accurately,the HPLC method for determination of lactulose in liquid milk was improved. The method used stable modified amide-based chromatographic column for separation,and eluted with acetonitrile-water mobile phase for 40 minutes gradiently. The results indicated that when the injection volume was 3 μL,the resolution was 1.5,which met the chromatographic separation detection. The optimized method has been verified that lactulose has a good linear relationship in the range of 50~2500 mg/kg,(R2=0.9997),the detection limit and the quantitative limit of lactulose were 15 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg respectively. The spiked recoveries of lactulose were in the range of 90.3%~105.6%,and relative standard deviations(n=6)in the range of 3.4%~3.9%. The proposed method was used to detect 27 actual milk samples,and the results were within a reasonable range. This method was economical and accurate for the daily detection of lactulose in liquid milk.
Effects of Tea Processing Procedures on Chemical Components and Antioxidant Activity of Coffee Leaves
JI Da-yi, DING Jian, TIAN Yu, MA Hai-le, SHAN Yun-hui, CHEN Xiu-min
2021, 42(1): 271-280.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030337
Abstract(5) PDF(2)
Abstract:
In the present study,coffee leaves were processed using tea processing methods and the effects of tea processing steps(including withering,rolling,fermentation,and drying)on the proximate and phytochemical compositions and antioxidant activities of coffee leaves with different developing stages were investigated. The results showed that each processing step and age of leaves affected proximate and phytochemical compositions and antioxidant activities differently. In generally,water soluble content exhibited a decrease tend;soluble sugars decreased during the first three processing steps with an increase during drying;withering caused the increase of free amino acid(FAA),however,FAA decreased when the leaves underwent fermentation. Caffeine content decreased significantly(P<0.05)in young leaves during processing,whereas,it remained constant in mature leaves;mangiferin and rutin contents increased during withering followed a decrease in the rolling and fermentation and then increased again during drying;chlorogenic acids kept decreasing before the end of fermentation and then increased in the drying process;the temporal profiles of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents and the antioxidant activity were similar to that of chlorogenic acids. Fresh young coffee leaves have greater water content,soluble sugar and soluble protein,phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity than that of mature leaves and those responses were significantly different in the same processing steps. Increase of fermentation time from 2 h to 48 h caused the decreases of proximate and phytochemical compositions and antioxidant activity significantly. In conclusion,different tea processing steps have different impacts on the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity. Different tea processing steps have different impacts on the phytochemical composition and antioxidant activity of coffee leaves and fermentation time was the most significant factors that affect the proximate composition and phytochemical components other than moisture.
Effects of Different Growth Stages on Physicochemical Properties of Dandelion
CHI Xiao-jun, SONG Guang-chun, DUAN Xi, WU Fan, YUE Feng-li
2021, 42(1): 281-285.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030161
Abstract(3) PDF(1)
Abstract:
In order to study the changes of physical and chemical properties of fresh leaves of dandelion in different growth periods,the fresh leaves of dandelion were taken for 30,45,60,75 and 90 days of growth to analyze the stem length,stem width,sensory properties,total flavonoids,total phenolic acids,polysaccharides,polyphenols,vitamin C and crude fiber content.The results showed that the stem length,total flavonoids content,total polysaccharide content and crude fiber content of dandelion leaves increased significantly from 30 to 75 days,while the water content decreased significantly and tended to balance after 75 days. The width of upper and lower stems decreased significantly within 60 days(P<0.05).The content of vitamin C increased first and then decreased,and the content of vitamin C was the highest at 45 days. Polyphenols showed an increasing trend,while sensory scores showed a downward trend.The growth period of 30 days was suitable for fresh food or instant food such as dandelion tofu. When the growth period was 45 days,it was easy to squeeze juice. The growth period of 75 days was suitable for dandelion tea,dandelion powder and other health products and preservative products.In this experiment,the picking time of dandelion fresh leaves of different processed products was determined,which provided scientific theoretical basis for better development and utilization of dandelion.
Indirect Competitive ELISA for Detection of Amantadine,Rimantadine and Soramantadine in Chicken and Duck Meat
CUI Nai-yuan, LIU Yi-fei, WANG Ping, WU Xia-jun, LIU Wei, XING Wei-wei, MA Li-cai
2021, 42(1): 286-291.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030366
Abstract(3) PDF(2)
Abstract:
Objective: To establish an ic-ELISA for the determination of amantadine,rimantadine and soramantadine in chicken and duck meat. Methods: Based on the principle of ic-ELISA,conjugated antigen was pre-coated in the wells of microtiter plate. Amantadine,rimantadine,and soramantadine contained in the samples will competitively combine with the enzyme-labelled antibody,which catalyzing colour reactions of the substrates. The concentration of amantadines in the sample was detremined on the basis of OD value. Results: The detection limits of amantadine,rimantadine and somantine were respectively 0.57,0.42,0.41 μg/kg(chicken),and 0.59,0.40,0.38 μg/kg(duck). The limits of quantification were respectively 0.85,0.63,0.69 μg/kg(chicken),and 0.94,0.68,0.52 μg/kg(duck). The added recovery range was 67.0%~117.9%;the intra-day and inter-day variation were 6.3%~12.7% and 8.1%~14.5%,respectively. The actual sample detection results were well consistent with HPLC-MS(R2=0.9990),showing that the method had good accuracy and precision. Conclusion: The ic-ELISA method established in this study is suitable for the detection of amantadine residues in chicken and duck meat samples. The method has high sensitivity and good stability. It can be used for rapid screening of batch samples and has good practical applications value.
Determination of Free Amino Acid Compositon in Phrynium rheedei by Pre-column Derivatization HPLC and Flavor Quality Evaluation
HUANG Yuan-he, HUANG Yu-zhuo, PAN Qiao-dan, LU Hai-feng, HUANG Jian
2021, 42(1): 292-296,303.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030183
Abstract(4) PDF(2)
Abstract:
The method for the determination of free amino acids in Phrynium rheedei was established,and its nutritional value and flavor was evaluated. HPLC with phenylisothiocyanateas derivatization reagent,chromatographic conditions were as follows: Using C18 column(4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm),with sodium acetate buffer-acetonitrile(93∶7)and acetonitrile-water(4∶1)as mobile phrase in gradient elution,flow rate of 1.0 mL/min,column temperature of 40 ℃,the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm.The results showed that the calibration curves of 18 kinds of amino acids showed good linearity within their test ranges(R2>0.9990),and the average recovery rates of the free amino acids in Phrynium rheedei ranged from 98.3%~105.6%(RSD0.63%~3.11%,n=6). The method was stable,sebsitive,good reproducibility,and could be used to determine the content of free amino acids in Phrynium rheedei. The tested results showed that there were 18 amino acids and 8 essential amino acids in Phrynium rheedei. The total content of essential amino acids was 38.85%,which closed significantly the WHO/FAO model value(40.0%),the components of essential amino acids met the requirements of WHO/FAO amino acid model of adult. The contents of delicious amino acids and sweet amino acids were 10.73 mg/g and 5.20 mg/g,which accounted for 22.58% and 46.59% of the total respectively. The contents of Asp and Thr were more,were 3.75 mg/g and 3.33 mg/g respectively. The RCT values of Asp and Cys were 125.00 and 20.50 respectively,had more the contribution to flavour. In a word,Phrynium rheedei contains variety of amino acid,which is reasonable proportion,the content of its flavor amino acids is rich,it has broad development prospects.
More+
Storage and Preservation
Fresh-keeping Effect of Slurry Ice on Farmed Pseudosciaena crocea
ZHAO Si-min, BEI Wen-ge, BAO Ze-yang, GUAN Feng, YUAN Yong-jun
2021, 42(1): 297-303.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030215
Abstract(4) PDF(1)
Abstract:
In order to investigate fresh-keeping effect and application feasibility of slurry ice on farmed Pseudosciaena crocea,precooling effect of slurry ice and the changes of P. crocea in sensory quality,texture characteristics,microbial and chemical indexes were analyzed during the storage. The results showed that slurry ice(-1 ℃)of chilling the tested fish to 0.3 ℃ was only 42 min,65% shorter of the time of crushed ice(4 ℃). During the storage period,the sensory score,springiness and hardness of the tested fish stored in slurry ice(4,-1 ℃)were higher than that of control group at the same time. The growth rate of the total number of colonies,coliform,proteolytic microorganism,lipolytic microorganism,TVB-N value,TBA value and K value were significantly lower than those in control group(P<0.05). According to the results,the shelf life of the fish treated by slurry ice(4,-1 ℃)was 6 days and 12 days,respectively,which was 3 days and 9 days longer than the control group. The results proved that slurry ice has obvious advantages over traditional crushed ice in precooling and preservation of P. crocea,which can be applied in industry.
Effect of Packaging Film Permeability on the Quality of MAP Storage of Hotbed Chives during Cold Storage
WANG Zu-lian, CHEN Qing, GAO Jia, LUO Fang-yao, TANG Yue-ming, TIAN Yu-xiao, GUO Yun-jian
2021, 42(1): 304-311.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030031
Abstract(5) PDF(1)
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of packing film permeability on short-term spontaneous gas regulation(MAP)storage of chives under low temperature(1±0.5 ℃). In this article,five types of gradient oxygen and carbon dioxide permeability polyethylene film bags were used to pack the chives,and the changes of some physical and chemical indicators of the chives after storage were tested. These indicators included the sensory indicators,decay index,gas composition,relative conductivity,tissue water content,malondialdehyde,and solubility sugar and ascorbic acid content. The results showed that the O2 and CO2 gas permeability were(4623±834) cm3/m2·24 h·0.1 MPa and(18033±3356) cm3/m2·24 h·0.1 MPa in polyethylene packaging bags after MAP treatment,the content of O2 and CO2 in the packaging bag was maintained at 11.67%~13.67% and 2.43%~3.45% relatively stable state when stored for 28~42 days. Using this packing bag could delay the increase of chives rot index,relative conductivity and malondialdehyde content in the storage process,slow down the decrease of sensory index,tissue moisture content,soluble sugar and ascorbic acid content,and the packaging film could be used as an appropriate MAP treatment material combined with refrigeration technology to prolong the fresh life of chives after harvest.
Effect of Rye Polyphenol on Functional Properties of Loach Myofibrillar Protein during Superchilling Storage
GUO Li-fang, WU Xiao-huai, YAN Yan, SHEN Zhen-guo
2021, 42(1): 312-316.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030358
Abstract(2) PDF(1)
Abstract:
The effects of rye polyphenols with various concentrations(1.5,3.0 and 4.5 g/L)on functional properties of loach myofibril protein during superchilled storage had been studied. The indexes of solubility,surface hydrophobicity,sulfhydryl content,carbonyl content,emulsifying activities and emulsifying stability were determined during 0,5,10,15,20,25 and 30 days storage at -0.7 ℃.The results showed that treatment with rye polyphenols had a significant effect on the functional properties of loach myofibrillar proteins during storage,compared with the control group,the treatment groups could inhibit the decreasing of sulfhydryl content and the increasing of carbonyl content and surface hydrophobicity of the loach myofibrillar protein during storage,thus the solubility and emulsification properties of myofibrillar protein had been kept in good condition,and the effects increased with the concentration of rye polyphenols. The best effect can be obtained when the concentration with 4.5 g/L.
More+
Nutrition and Healthcare
Effect of in Vitro Digestion on Antioxidant Activity of Salmon Skin Collagen Oligopeptides
LIU Wen-ying, ZHANG Ming-hao, GAO Li-hui, FENG Xiao-wen, LI Guo-ming, GU Rui-zeng
2021, 42(1): 317-321.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030001
Abstract(7) PDF(1)
Abstract:
In this research,salmon skin collagen oligopeptides(SSCP)were prepared by enzymatic hydrolysis using salmon skin and subjected to in vitro digestion experiments. Through molecular weight distribution analysis,DPPH free radical scavenging activity,hydroxyl radical scavenging activity,total antioxidant capacity(ABTS method)and reactive oxygen species(ROS)experiment,the antioxidant properties of SSCP were explored before and after in vitro digestion. The results showed that the weight average molecular weight of SSCP decreased slightly after the simulated digestion experiment,with a change of no more than 4%;before and after pepsin digestion,the IC50 values of DPPH free radical scavenging activity were 11.1 and 12.3 mg/mL,respectively,and before and after trypsin digestion,the IC50 values were 12.5 and 14.6 mg/mL,respectively;before and after pepsin digestion,IC50 values of hydroxyl radical scavenging activity were 12.2 and 13.2 mg/mL,respectively,and before and after trypsin digestion,IC50 values were 10.7 and 11.5 mg/mL,respectively;after pepsin digestion,the total antioxidant capacity decreased by no more than 13%,and after trypsin digestion,the total antioxidant capacity decreased by no more than 19%;after pepsin digestion,the ROS scavenging activity increased by no more than 3%,and after trypsin digestion,the ROS scavenging activity increased by no more than 5%. This indicated that SSCP had good digestive stability and antioxidant activity,which provided a theoretical basis for their development in antioxidant functional food.
Effect of Pumpkin Dietary Fiber on Blood Lipid on Hyperlipidemic Rats
LIU Jing-yi, SHI Xiao-ling, CHEN Xiao-ai, TANG Niang, ZHOU Ai-mei
2021, 42(1): 322-327,333.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020020323
Abstract(3) PDF(2)
Abstract:
Objective: To assess the hypolipidemic effect of pumpkin insoluble dietary fiber(IDF)and soluble fiber(SDF)prepared with enzymatic method. Methods: An animal model of hyperlipidemia was established by feeding rats with a high-fat diet. And then the model animals were fed with compound feed supplemented with 2.5%,5% and 10% pumpkin dietary fiber for 4 weeks,respectively. The fecal fat content,the organ to body weight ratio,and liver fat content were measured. The total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride(TG),high density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),and low density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C)in serum were measured and atherosclerosis index(AI)was calculated. And the pathological changes of liver tissues were observed. Results: Pumpkin dietary fiber could increase the amount of feces,water content in feces and fat content in feces,reduce the content of liver fat,and alleviate the degree of fatty liver caused by high fat diet. Morever,the serum levels of TC,TG,and LDL-C decreased significantly(P<0.05)and the serum levels of HDL-C increased significantly(P<0.05)in the experimental groups fed with dietary fiber,compared with the high-fat group. And the results of experimental group fed with IDF were better than those fed with SDF. Conclusion: The results suggest that pumpkin dietary fiber can effectively improve the serum lipid levels in hyperlipidemia rats.
Protective Effects of Sporoderm-broken Spore Powder of Haematococcus pluvialis on Liver and Kidney of Type 2 Diabetes Rats
BI Cui-cui, LIU Yin-lu, YANG Li-tao, WEI Fen-fen, LI Yong-chao, ZHANG Bo
2021, 42(1): 328-333.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020020325
Abstract(3) PDF(1)
Abstract:
Objective: To study the protective effect of sporoderm-broken spore powder of Haematococcus pluvialis on liver and kidney in type 2 diabetes rats. Methods: SD rats were divided into normal group and model group. The normal group was fed with ordinary feed,and 70 rats were modeled with high-fat and high-sugar diet for 4 weeks. Then intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin 35 mg/kg BW;continued feeding for 4 weeks,and the blood glucose was measured to divide the successful model rats into model group,low dose group,medium dose group,high dose group,and hypoglycemic drug group. The rats in model group were administrated with double distilled water,meanwhile,the low,medium,and high dose groups were administered orally to 50,100 and 200 mg/kg BW,respectively,the rats in hypoglycemic drug group were administered orally with metformin hydrochloride(28.5 mg/kg BW),and continued to be fed with high-fat and high-sugar feed for 4 weeks. The rats were sacrificed. The alanine aminotransferase(ALT),aspartate aminotransferase(AST),alkaline phosphatase(ALP),lactate dehydrogenase(LDH)activities,albumin(ALB)and globulin(GLO)contents of the serum were determined. Liver and kidney were obtained for determining the related markers,including superoxide dismutase(SOD),glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px),malondialdehyde(MDA),and the inflammatory factor levels of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α)and interleukin-1β(IL-1β).Liver and kidney HE stained pathological sections were made to observe the liver and kidney histopathological changes. Results: Compared with the model group,rats in treatment groups had a significance reduction in serum ALT,AST,ALP,LDH activities,GLO content(P<0.01)and ALB content(P<0.05)in type 2 diabetes rats. The treatment groups significantly increased the activity of SOD and GSH-Px in liver and kidney tissues(P<0.01),reduce the content of MDA(P<0.01),and significantly reduce the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β(P<0.01). Furthermore,the pathological injury of liver and kidney tissues were also significantly improved. Conclusion: Sporoderm-broken spore powder of Haematococcus pluvialis can ameliorate the liver and kidney damage in type 2 diabetes rats. The mechanism may be related to reducing oxidative stress and reducing inflammatory responses.
Stability of Total Nutrient Emulsion of Food for Special Medical Purpose by Particle Analysis
HAN Li-li, SUN Feng-yi, CHEN Zhao-qing, WANG Xue-min, ZHOU Hao, ZHANG Yan, HE Mei, LIU Lu
2021, 42(1): 334-341,347.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020020176
Abstract(4) PDF(1)
Abstract:
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of various stabilizer,pH and shelf life on the stability of total nutrient emulsion based on micro-characteristics of particles analysis. The results showed that microcrystalline cellulose had little effect on the mean particle size,viscosity and ZETA potential of total nutrient emulsion system. The optimum concentration of MCC was 0.6 g/L. Gellan gum was directly proportional to the viscosity of the system and inversely proportional to the mean particle size. The optimum concentration of gellan gum was 0.1 g/L. Stabilizer in this study had little effect on ZETA potential. For the retort sterilization,the optimum pH was 6.68,when the mean particle size of the total nutrient emulsion was the smallest,and the centrifugal precipitation rate was 1.79%. The shelf life experiment showed that changes of mean particle size,ZETA potential and pH occurred during the first 60 days. With storage time increasing,particles in the emulsion continuously aggregated and precipitated,which aggravated the instability of the total nutrition emulsion. After 105 days,the characteristic of particles remained basically unchanged.
Immunomodulatory Effects of Peptides from Deer Fetus on RAW264.7 Macrophages
ZHANG Kai-yue, LI Chun-nan, LAN Meng, WANG Ya-ping, YIN Xin-xue, ZHANG Hui, GAO Xiao-chen
2021, 42(1): 342-347.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019110029
Abstract(4) PDF(1)
Abstract:
Deer fetus peptides(DFP)was extracted from deer fetus and its immunomodulatory activities in macrophage RAW264.7 was evaluated in vitro. The proliferative activity of each peptide segment in ultrafiltration fraction was determined by methyl thiazolyltetrazolium(MTT)assay,and the components with high proliferative activity were screened. To further evaluate its immunomodulatory activity,the effects of DFP on the phagocytic activity,nitric oxide(NO)and cytokines secretion of RAW264.7 macrophages were detected by inverted microscope observation,neutral red phagocytosis assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA),respectively. The effects on the cell cycle distribution of macrophages were also observed. The results showed that DFP-5,with molecula mass less than 1 kDa,could significantly(P<0.05)increase cytokines in RAW264.7 such as nitric oxide(NO),interleukin-1β(IL-1β),interleukin-6(IL-6)and the tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α). When the concentration of DFP was 25 μg/mL,the secretion of these factors was the closest to that of the positive control group(LPS). Cell cycle results showed that DFP could promote the proliferation of RAW264.7 cells and the effect was mainly at the G0/G1 phase. All these results indicated that the deer fetus peptide had the potential to activate macrophages and enhance immune function.
Effects of Inulin on Quality of Quick-frozen Cooked Noodles and Hypolipidemic and Hypolycemic Effect of Ta-er-mi and Inulin Noodles
ZHANG Ya-ming, WANG De-ping, CHEN Qin-jie, JING Si-qun
2021, 42(1): 348-354.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019110036
Abstract(4) PDF(1)
Abstract:
The inulin was added to the quick-frozen cooked noodles made from wheat flour and ta-er-mi. The cooking loss rate,expansion ratio,microstructure and tensile properties of the quick-frozen cooked noodles were taken as indicators to analyze the effect of inulin on the quality of quick-frozen cooked noodles. The drosophila melanogaster type 2 diabetes model induced by high glucose and high fat were established,the effects of ta-er-mi and inulin quick-frozen cooked noodles on glycolipid metabolism and the synergistic effect of ta-er-mi and inulin were analyzed by using the content of total protein,triglyceride and trehalose as indicators. The results showed that the noodles expansion rate,cooking loss rate and microstructure were improved after the addition of inulin. When inulin content was 0.10%,the expansion rate and cooking loss rate of the quick-frozen cooked noodles were the lowest(29.80%±0.45%,(0.23±0.01) Abs respectively),the microstructure was the most compact,the porosity was the lowest,and the pores were small and uniform,tensile properties were the strongest(fracture strength was(45.15±0.10) g,fracture elongation was(8.75±0.10) mm). Quick-frozen cooked noodles with inulin and ta-er-mi could significantly reduce trehalose and triglyceride content in drosophila melanogaster type 2 diabetes induced by high sugar and high fat(P<0.01),and the effect of adding ta-er-mi and inulin at the same time was stronger than that of adding ta-er-mi and inulin alone(P<0.01),indicating that ta-er-mi and inulin had synergistic hypoglycemic and lipid-lowering effects.
More+
Reviews
Review on Test Methods of Food Glycemic Responses
DING Fang-li, LIU Jia, LIN Jing, GAO Ming, WANG Qing, YUAN Peng, HAN Xiao-feng, CHEN Wei, DUAN Sheng-lin
2021, 42(1): 355-362.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030149
Abstract(7) PDF(2)
Abstract:
Glycemic response(GR)refers to the effect of food on blood glucose fluctuation,which can reflect the digestion and metabolism of carbohydrate in the body. The determination of GR is very important for the diet guidance for diabetic patients,and the development of low glycemic index products. At present,the most authoritative method to test GR is human body test. In addition,animal test and in vitro evaluation methods have also become research focuses due to their advantages of low cost,easy operation and high throughput. This paper mainly reviews the research status of different methods on GR test including human test,animal test and in vitro digestion model,in order to provide guidance and help for the follow-up research.
Analysis on the Effect of Enzymes on the Quality of Whole Wheat Bread
LU Yun-jun, LU Li-xia, YAO Li-li, LIN Li-jun, XIONG Xiao-hui
2021, 42(1): 363-367,372.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019120153
Abstract(4) PDF(3)
Abstract:
Whole wheat bread contains various kinds of functional nutrients which are beneficial to human health,but its consumption is much lower than that of white bread. The main reason is that whole wheat bread has a tough texture and poor sensory quality. Therefore,the quality of whole wheat bread needs to be improved. The effects of xylanase,α-amylase,phytase,amyloglucosidase,glucose oxidase,and lipase on the specific volume,texture,and aging of whole wheat bread and the mechanism of action are described. In addition,the research progress of improving the quality of whole wheat bread with complex enzyme is also introduced. Through adding multiple enzymes,the quality of whole wheat bread can be improved more comprehensively,and the limitation of improving the quality of whole wheat bread by the single enzyme can be avoided.
Research Progress of Atmospheric Cold Plasma in Fresh-cut Fruits and Vegetables Preservation
XIANG Qi-sen, ZHANG Rong, FAN Liu-min, MA Yun-fang, LI Yun-fei
2021, 42(1): 368-372.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030152
Abstract(4) PDF(1)
Abstract:
Fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are favored by consumers because of their convenience,no additives,and higher nutrition values. However,fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are easily contaminated with microorganisms during processing and storage,which leads to food quality deterioration and shorter shelf-life. As a new non-thermal sterilization technology,atmospheric cold plasma(ACP)has been widely used in food and biomedical field. The latest advances in the applications of ACP in processing of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables are well reviewed in this article,including sterilization and preservation as well as effect on the quality of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables. This paper provides reference for the wide application of ACP technology in sterilization and preservation of fresh-cut fruits and vegetables.
Research Progress of Milk Protein Desensitization Based on Biological Enzymatic Method
ZHANG Qi, HE Guo-qing
2021, 42(1): 373-377,386.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2019110160
Abstract(3) PDF(1)
Abstract:
Milk is the main food protein source for infants and young children,but it is also one of the eight major foods that cause food allergies. The research and production of hypoallergenic dairy products is of great significance to people with milk allergies. At present,biological enzymatic method is the main technical way to develop hypoallergenic dairy products. This article lists the cow milk allergic protein and its sensitizing epitopes which can be recognized,introduces the technology and effect of the application of biological enzymatic treatment to obtain low antigenic cow milk protein hydrolysate,and puts forward some thoughts on subsequent research. This paper provides a theoretical basis for the research of hypoallergenic dairy products and the realization of directed hydrolysis in the future.
Recent Progress of Influence Factors and Synergistic Fermentation of Starters in Dairy Products
HOU Tuan-wei, DUAN Jian-ping, WU Xiao-hong
2021, 42(1): 378-386.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030171
Abstract(5) PDF(1)
Abstract:
Dairy products starter culture plays a significant role in the dairy industry. For more scientific,efficient and economical use of dairy products starter culture,it is essential to have thorough understanding of these starters. Based on this statement,this paper summarizes the common types and probiotic function of dairy starter(Lactobacillus,Strptococcus,Bifidobacterium,Leuconostoc and Lactococcus),the factors affecting fermentation(selection of fermentation,phage and antibiotics)and cooperation fermentation(symbiosis and commensalism),in order to provide some references for its application in dairy products.
Study on Functional Ingredients,Functional Claims and Detection Standards of Health Food
LAN Tao, WU Qi, ZHAO Lin, YUN Zhen-yu
2021, 42(1): 387-396.   doi: 10.13386/j.issn1002-0306.2020030164
Abstract(6) PDF(1)
Abstract:
The function of health food is mainly determined by its functional ingredients. And its detection method is closely related to the quality of health food product. This paper sorts out the main functional claims,functional ingredients and corresponding detection methods of 4620 kinds of health food registered and filed in 2013~2020. 121 kinds of functional ingredients and their functional claims and detection methods are summarized. There are so many functional claims for each functional ingredient. The main functional claims of each functional ingredient should be clarified. At the same time,it is found that the functional ingredients detection standards system of health food in China are relatively integrity. At present,only 5 kinds of functional ingredients with high market recognition need to establish the standards for the detection,such as xylooligosaccharide,total triterpenoids,total anthraquinone,heme chloride,and total glycosides of cistanche deserticola. In order to improve the functional ingredients standard system of health food,this paper not only clarifies the work requirements,but also points out the development direction for more targeted function claims of functional ingredients and the development of corresponding detection method standards,which is conducive to promoting the healthy and sustainable development of health food industry in China.
More+
嫩模人体艺术