以川西高原野樱桃为原料酿造野樱桃果酒,采用单因素和Box-Behnken试验设计,分析K2S2O5添加量、初始糖度、酵母接种量、发酵温度对野樱桃果酒发酵的影响。同时,采用顶空固相微萃取(Headspace solid-phase microextraction HS-SPME)与气相色谱-质谱联用技术(Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry,GC-MS)相结合的方法对不同陈酿时间果酒风味物质检测分析,并对主要风味物进行主成分分析,以筛选出对野樱桃果酒特征风味起重要作用的关键成分。结果表明,响应面法优化野樱桃果酒最佳发酵工艺为:K2S2O5添加量80 mg/L,初始糖度19 °Bx,酵母接种量3.5%,发酵温度23 ℃。不同陈酿时间野樱桃果酒经气相色谱-质谱联用仪共检出90种挥发性物质,挥发性物质总含量随陈酿时间延长呈先增加后减少趋势,在陈酿12 d时检出74种挥发性香气成分,种类最多,主要为醇类(35.480%)和酯类(35.848%),所占比例最高为93.808%;通过主成分分析法提取出3个主成分及6种对川西高原野樱桃果酒风味影响较大的物质,分别为辛酸、己酸乙酯、丁香酚、苯甲醛、油酸乙酯、芳樟醇,其中特有成分丁香酚、油酸乙酯、芳樟醇等对人体健康起积极作用。通过对川西高原野樱桃果酒工艺条件及香气成分进行分析,为野樱桃产品开发及其相关功能性评价奠定理论基础。
The wild cherry fruit from western Sichuan was utilized as raw material for fruit wine brewing. The effects of potassium sulfite addition,initial sugar content,yeast inoculation amount and fermentation temperature on the wild cherry wine fermentation were analyzed by single factor tests and Box-Behnken experiment design. The flavor components of wild cherry wine were extracted by head spacesolid-phase microextraction(HS-SPME)and identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry(GC-MS)at different aging times. And the main flavor components were analyzed by principal component analysis to select the characteristic components that played an important role in the characteristic flavor of cherry fruit wine. Results showed that,the optimal fermentation process conditions of wild cherry fruit wine by response surface method were determined as follows:Potassium sulfite 80 mg/L,initial sugar content 19 °Bx,yeast inoculation amount 3.5% and fermentation temperature 23 ℃. A total of 90 volatile aroma compounds were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at different ages. The total content of volatile substances increased first and then decreased with the prolongation of aging time. The highest content was 93.808% and the most variety was obtained at the 12 days and 74 volatile aroma substances were detected. The main aroma active components of wild cherry wine were alcohols and esters,which accounted for 35.480% and 35.848% of the aroma components respectively. Principal component analysis method was used to extract three main components and six substances that had a great influence on the flavor of wild cherry fruit wine.The six substances were octanoic acid,ethyl hexanoate,eugenol,benzaldehyde,ethyl oleate,linalool,in which the unique ingredients(eugenol,ethyl oleate and linalool)had positive effects on human health. This study aimed to establish a theoretical foundation for the development and the related functional evaluation of the wild cherry wine products through the analysis of the analysis of the fermentation conditions and volatile compounds of wild cherry fruit wine.