以自然发酵的四川辣椒酱为研究对象,通过高通量测序技术,探究其在发酵过程中细菌群落的多样性和演替规律。结果表明,辣椒酱自然发酵过程中在门的水平上主要有厚壁菌门(Firmicutes)、变形菌门(Proteobacteria)、拟杆菌门(Bacteroidetes)等菌门,其中厚壁菌门的数量随着发酵时间增加逐渐增多,在发酵第15 d时相对丰度达到28.56%,成为丰度最高的菌门。在属的水平上主要有乳杆菌属(Lactobacillus spp.)、片球菌属(Pediococcus spp.)、魏斯氏菌属(Weissella spp.)、葡萄球菌属(Staphyloccoccus spp.)等,其中优势菌属乳杆菌属在0~25 d含量较低,在发酵第30 d时,相对丰度达到68.24%。此外,在辣椒酱自然发酵过程中,检测到肠杆菌属(Enterobacter spp.)等致病菌属,表明自然发酵辣椒酱存在微生物卫生食用安全问题。
Bacterial community structure and succession in traditional fermented Sichuan chili sauce during natural fermentation were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing technology. The results showed that there were mainly Firmicutes,Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes at bacterial phylum level in naturally fermented chili sauce. Firmicutes gradually increased with the progress of fermentation,and the relative abundance reached 28.56% on the 15th day of fermentation,which led it became to the highest phylum. On the genus level,there were mainly Lactobacillus spp.,Pediococcus spp.,Weissella spp. and Staphyloccoccus spp.. Lactobacillus spp. was the main dominant genus of the chili sauce. The abundance level of Lactobacillus was low during 0~25 d,and the relative abundance reached 68.24% at the 30th day of fermentation. Moreover,pathogenic bacteria such as Enterobacter spp. were detected,indicating that the microbial health and food safety issues existed during the natural fermentation of chili sauce.